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However, for some, there may be times when, for a variety of reasons, their ability to keep themselves safe and protect their wellbeing and rights is compromised.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the four HCAFs are committed to safeguarding adults in line with relevant national legislation, and relevant national and local guidelines. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe will safeguard adults by ensuring that our activities are delivered in a way which keeps all adults safe.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe will develop a culture of zero tolerance of harm to adults, which necessitates:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• the recognition of adults who may be at risk and the circumstances which may increase \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e risk\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• knowing how adult abuse, exploitation or neglect manifests itself\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• being willing to report safeguarding concerns.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis extends to recognising and reporting harm experienced anywhere, including within our activities, within other organised activities, in the community, in the person’s own home and in any care setting. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the four HCAFs are committed to best safeguarding practice and to uphold the rights of all adults to live a life free from harm from abuse, exploitation and neglect. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe purpose of this policy is to demonstrate the commitment of UK Athletics and the four HCAFs to safeguard adults and to ensure that everyone involved in our sport is aware of:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • the legislation, policy and procedures for safeguarding adults\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • their role and responsibility for safeguarding adults \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • what to do or who to speak to if they have a concern relating to the welfare or wellbeing of \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e an adult within the organisation.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePOLICY STATEMENT \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the four HCAFs believe everyone has the right to live free from abuse or neglect, regardless of age, ability, disability, sex, race, religion, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, marital or gender status. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe are committed to creating and maintaining a safe and positive environment and an open, listening culture where people feel able to share concerns without fear of retribution. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe collectively acknowledge that safeguarding is everybody’s responsibility and we are committed to the prevention of abuse and neglect through safeguarding the welfare of all adults involved in our sport. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the four HCAFs recognise that health, wellbeing, ability, disability and need for care and support can affect a person’s resilience. We recognise that some people experience barriers, for example, to communication in raising concerns or seeking help. We recognise that these factors can vary at different points in people’s lives. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe recognise that there is a legal framework within which sports need to work to safeguard adults who have needs for care and support, and for protecting those who are unable to take action to protect themselves. We will act in accordance with the relevant safeguarding adult legislation and with local statutory safeguarding procedures.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eActions taken by UK Athletics and the four HCAFs will be consistent with the principles of adult safeguarding, ensuring that any action taken is prompt, proportionate and that it includes and respects the voice of the adult concerned.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAPPLICATION \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis Adult Safeguarding Policy and associated procedures apply to all individuals involved in UK Athletics and the four HCAFs, and to all concerns about the safety of adults whilst involved in our respective organisations. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor the avoidance of doubt this includes board members, staff, coaches, officials, volunteers, members, affiliated clubs, senior managers, participants in events operating under a UKA or Home Country licence, individuals or organisations contracted to, or whose services are engaged to deliver programmes and courses on behalf of UKA or a Home Country, and anyone working within the sport (in a paid or voluntary capacity), whether as an employee or on a self-employed basis. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe expect our partner organisations, including suppliers and sponsors, to adopt and demonstrate their commitment to the principles and practice as set out in this Adult Safeguarding Policy and associated procedures\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCOMMITMENTS\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTo implement this policy, UK Athletics and the four HCAFs will ensure:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• everyone involved in athletics is aware of the safeguarding adult procedures and knows \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e what to do and who to contact if they have a concern relating to the safety or wellbeing of \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e an adult\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• any concern that an adult is not safe is taken seriously, responded to promptly, and \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e followed up in line with this policy and associated procedures.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• the wellbeing of those at risk of harm will be put first and the adult actively supported to \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e communicate their views and the outcomes they want to achieve. Those views and wishes \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e will be respected and supported unless there are overriding reasons not to (see the Adult \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Safeguarding Procedures)\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• any actions taken will respect the rights and dignity of all those involved and be \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e proportionate to the risk of harm \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• confidential, detailed and accurate records of all safeguarding concerns are maintained \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e and securely stored in line with our Data Protection Policy and Procedures \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• accordance with best practice advice; for example, from UK Sport, Sport England, Sport \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Wales, sportscotland, Sport Northern Ireland, National Governing Bodies, NSPCC, Ann \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Craft Trust and Children 1st \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• cooperation with the Police and the relevant Local Authorities in taking action to safeguard \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e an adult \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• all board members, staff, coaches, officials and volunteers within UK Athletics and the four \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e HCAFs understand their role and responsibility for safeguarding adults, and have \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e completed and are up to date with safeguarding adult training and learning opportunities \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e appropriate for their role \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• the use of safe recruitment practices and continual assessment of the suitability of \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e volunteers and staff in order to prevent the employment/deployment of unsuitable \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e individuals in our organisation and within the athletics community \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• a sharing of information with the appropriate bodies about anyone found to be a risk to \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e adults; for example: Disclosure and Barring Service, Disclosure Scotland, Police, Local \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Authority/Social Services \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• the inclusion of a risk assessment when planning activities and events as to the safety of \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e all adults from abuse, exploitation and neglect \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• actions taken under this policy are reviewed by the Safeguarding Case Management \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Group, respective governing body Boards and senior management teams on an annual \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e basis \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• this policy, related policies and the associated Adult Safeguarding Procedures are \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e reviewed on a two-yearly basis by UK Athletics in conjunction with the four HCAFs via the \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Case Management Group, and whenever there are changes in relevant legislation and/or \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e government guidance as required by the Local Safeguarding Board, UK Sport, Sport \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e England/Wales/Scotland/Northern Ireland and/or National Governing Bodies, or as a result \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e of any other significant change or event\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eIMPLEMENTATION \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the four HCAFs are committed to developing and maintaining a capability to implement this policy and its procedures. In order to do so, the following will be in place: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• A Lead Safeguarding Officer in each HCAF and at UK Athletics \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• A Safeguarding Case Management Group incorporating UK Athletics and the four HCAFs, \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e with an appointed Chair and clear Terms of Reference \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• A clear line of accountability within the relevant governing body for the safety and wellbeing \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e of all adults \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Access to relevant legal and professional advice \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Regular management reports from the Safeguarding Case Management Group to the \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e relevant governing body Board, detailing how risks to adult safeguarding are being \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e addressed and how any reports have been addressed \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Aligned adult safeguarding procedures that deal effectively with any concerns of abuse or \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e neglect, including those caused through poor practice \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Arrangements to work effectively with other relevant organisations to safeguard and \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e promote the welfare of adults, including arrangements for sharing information\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Codes of conduct for all relevant roles and individuals that specify zero tolerance of abuse \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e in any form \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Risk assessments that specifically include safeguarding of adults \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Policies and procedures that address the following areas and which are consistent with this \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Adult Safeguarding Policy: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Child safeguarding policy and procedures \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Bullying \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Social media \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Equality, diversity and inclusion \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Codes of conduct \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Discipline and grievance \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Concerns and complaints \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Whistleblowing \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Safe recruitment and selection of staff and volunteers \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Information policy, data protection and information sharing \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e? Adult Safeguarding Procedures (Responding to and managing a concern about an \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e adult). \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eEQUALITY \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the HCAFs endorse the principle of equality and will strive to ensure that everyone who wishes to be involved in athletics (in all its disciplines and forms): \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• has a genuine and equal opportunity to participate to the full extent of their own ambitions and abilities, without regard to their age, sex, gender identity, disability, marital or civil partnership status, pregnancy or maternity, religion, race, socio-economic status or sexual orientation \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• can be assured of an environment in which their rights, dignity and individual worth are respected and that they are able to enjoy their sport without the threat of intimidation, victimisation, harassment or abuse.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSECTION 2: SUPPORTING INFORMATION \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eKEY POINTS\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• There is a \u003cstrong\u003eLegal duty on Local Authorities \u003c/strong\u003eto provide support to ‘adults at risk’.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e• Adults at risk \u003c/strong\u003eare defined in legislation and the criteria applied differs between each Home \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e Country (see definitions for each Home Country in Table 1).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• The safeguarding legislation applies to \u003cstrong\u003eall forms of abuse\u003c/strong\u003e that harm a person’s wellbeing. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• The law provides a framework for good practice in safeguarding that makes the overall \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e wellbeing\u003c/strong\u003e of the adult at risk a priority of any intervention. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• The law in all four Home Countries emphasises the importance of \u003cstrong\u003eperson-centred \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e safeguarding. \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• The law provides a framework for making decisions on behalf of adults who can’t make \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e decisions for themselves (\u003cstrong\u003emental capacity\u003c/strong\u003e). \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• The law provides a framework for sports organisations to \u003cstrong\u003eshare concerns \u003c/strong\u003ethey have about \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e adults at risk with the Local Authority. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• The law provides a framework for all organisations to \u003cstrong\u003eshare information and cooperate\u003c/strong\u003e to \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e protect adults at risk\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eADULT SAFEGUARDING LEGISLATION\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhilst most children’s needs will be met by their parents and carers, it is acknowledged that participation in sports can support and promote a child’s wellbeing. Government policy in all parts of the UK recognises that sports clubs and their staff and volunteers are often significant role models and trusted people in children’s lives. They are therefore well placed to identify when a child’s wellbeing and health is, or is at risk of, being adversely affected by any matter, and to act in the child’s best interests.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA wellbeing concern can be identified in different circumstances. For example: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eA child may reveal that they are worried, anxious or upset about an incident or set of circumstances, either within or outside of athletics\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eYou may have noticed a change in a child’s behaviour, demeanour or developmental progress. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eYou may have concerns about the impact on a child of an incident or set of circumstances, either within or outside of the sport. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eYou may have concerns for a child’s physical or mental health. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere are of course other factors which can impact on a child’s wellbeing. Government policy and guidance varies across the UK, so please refer to your HCAF’s website for specific welfare and wellbeing guidance.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCHILD ABUSE\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere are four well established categories of abuse:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003ePhysical\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eSexual \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eEmotional \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eNeglect.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eDetailed descriptions of the four main categories of abuse, along with information about additional vulnerabilities faced by some children and young people, can be found in Appendix 2.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePOLICY REVIEW \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis policy will be reviewed every two years, or sooner in the event of legislative changes or revisions to related policies and guidelines. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis policy should be read in conjunction with the following documents, policies and procedures.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • Child Safeguarding Procedures (Responding to and managing a concern about a child) \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Club Safeguarding Toolkit\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • Codes of Conduct\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • Safe Volunteer Recruitment Procedures\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • Disciplinary Regulations \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• Adult Safeguarding Policy\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e • Adult Safeguarding Procedures (Responding to and managing a concern about an adult).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eNATIONAL SAFEGUARDING CONTACT DETAILS\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eGOVERNING BODY EMAIL PHONE \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics \u003ca href=\"mailto:safeguarding@uka.org.uk\"\u003esafeguarding@uka.org.uk\u003c/a\u003e 07920 532552 \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eEngland Athletics \u003ca href=\"mailto:welfare@englandathletics.org\"\u003ewelfare@englandathletics.org\u003c/a\u003e 07967 317341 \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWelsh Athletics safeguardingandwelfare@welshathletics.org 07792 242153 Athletics Northern Ireland \u003ca href=\"mailto:welfare@athleticsni.org\"\u003ewelfare@athleticsni.org\u003c/a\u003e 02890 602707 \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eScottish Athletics welfare@scottishathletics.org.uk\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGLOSSARY\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eLSO\u003c/strong\u003e – Lead Safeguarding Officer for UK Athletics or the relevant Home Country\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eCWO\u003c/strong\u003e – Club Welfare Officer\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eLSCB\u003c/strong\u003e – Local Safeguarding Children Board\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eDBS\u003c/strong\u003e – Disclosure and Barring Service in England and Wales\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003ePVG\u003c/strong\u003e – Protection of Vulnerable Groups system operated by Disclosure Scotland \u003cbr\u003e\n• \u003cstrong\u003eAccessNI\u003c/strong\u003e – Protection of Vulnerable Groups system operating in Northern Ireland\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eCPSU\u003c/strong\u003e – Child Protection in Sport Unit (NSPCC)\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eChildren 1st\u003c/strong\u003e – Child Protection in Sport Service in Scotland\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eAffiliated club\u003c/strong\u003e – Means any voluntary club, non-voluntary organisation or virtual club affiliated to UKA or the Home Country Athletics Federations\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eChild\u003c/strong\u003e – Anyone who has not attained the age of 18 years\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e• \u003cstrong\u003eHCAF \u003c/strong\u003e– Home Country Athletics Federation.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSECTION 3: APPENDICES\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAPPENDIX 1: PROCESS MAP – REPORTING A CONCERN ABOUT A CHILD\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eConcern arises about a child or the conduct of a member of\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e staff, coach, or volunteer towards a child\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Is there an immediate risk to a child or young person?\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e YES NO \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCRIME/IMMEDIATE MEDICAL \u003c/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eIs the Club\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eRISK/ Call the Police/ Call Ambulance \u003c/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWelfare Officer\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSocial Services \u003c/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAvailable ?\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e YES NO\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Club Welfare Officer takes local actions to Contact the HCAF/UKA\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Protect the child – contacts the HCAF/UKA Safeguarding Team for advice, \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Safeguarding Team and submits the Child complete and send them Child \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Safeguarding Concern Form Safeguarding Concern Forms\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e UKA Safeguarding Team conducts initial case review and advises\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Safeguarding Case Management Group (CMG).\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCase assessed as suitable Case assessed as requiring investigation by\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eFor resolution via summary UKA Safeguarding Team\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e processes\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e UKA Safeguarding Team considers interim \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eConcern managed by HCAF protection measures \u0026 notifies statutory \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWelfare officer \u0026 overseen by bodies/agrees timeline and investigate process.\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eUKA Safeguarding Team May be delayed pending police enquiries\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eOutcome of summary process UKA conducts safeguarding investigation and \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAdvised to CMG and details refers to Independent Safeguarding Panel for \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e recorded on the case case decision. Outcome advised, including \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e Management System appeal process, and sanction implemented\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch2\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAPPENDIX 2: CHILD ABUSE – DEFINITIONS, SIGNS AND INDICATORS\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWhat is Child Abuse and Child Neglect? \u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAbuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting, or by failing to act to prevent, significant harm to the child. Children may be abused in a family, or an institutional or sporting setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt is helpful to consider the different ways in which children can be abused, both within and out-with our sport. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere are four agreed categories of abuse:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eEmotional\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003e\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ePhysical\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003e\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eSexual\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003e\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eNeglect.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThese categories are not mutually exclusive. For example, a child experiencing physical abuse is undoubtedly experiencing emotional abuse as well. The definitions which follow show the different ways in which these categories of abuse may be experienced by a child. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003eRecognising the Signs of Child Abuse\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAfter each definition that follows we have included some guidance on the main signs of abuse to look out for. However, be aware that although the physical and behavioural signs listed may be symptomatic of abuse, they may not always be an indicator and, conversely, children experiencing abuse may not demonstrate any of these signs. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eChild abuse is often difficult to recognise. It is not your responsibility to decide whether a child has been abused or not. That is the role of trained professionals. At UK Athletics we believe it’s everyone’s responsibility to protect children. If you know or suspect that a child is being harmed or abused, you need to act. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003eEmotional Abuse\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eEmotional abuse is defined as the persistent emotional neglect or ill treatment that has severe and persistent adverse effects on a child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt may involve the imposition of age or developmentally inappropriate expectations of a child. It may involve causing children to feel frightened or in danger and includes exploiting or corrupting children. Some level of emotional abuse will be present in other types of ill treatment of children, but it can occur independently of other forms of abuse. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eExamples of emotional abuse in sport include:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003ea persistent failure to show any respect to a child (e.g. continually ignoring a child) \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003e\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ehumiliating a child by continuously criticising their performance\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003e\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003econtinually being aggressive towards a child\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003e\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eacting in a way which undermines a child’s self-esteem.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSigns which may raise concerns about emotional abuse include: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003elow self-esteem\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003erunning away from home\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eextremes of passivity and aggression\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esignificant decline in concentration - indiscriminate friendliness and neediness\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eself-harming.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003ePhysical Abuse \u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePhysical abuse is defined as the causing of physical harm to a child or young person. It may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning or suffocating. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer feigns the symptoms of, or deliberately causes, ill health to a child they are looking after. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eMost children sustain accidental cuts and bruises throughout childhood. These are likely to occur in parts of the body like elbows, shins and knees. An important indicator of physical abuse is when the bruises or injuries are unexplained, or the explanation does not fit the injury, or the injury appears on parts of the body where accidental injuries are unlikely (e.g. on the cheeks or thighs). The age of the child must also be considered. It is possible that some injuries may have occurred for other reasons (e.g. certain skin conditions and diseases). \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePhysical harm can be caused by: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eovertraining or dangerous training of athletes (e.g. sudden increases in training workloads)\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eallowing an athlete to compete too frequently over an extended period \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efailure to do a risk assessment of physical limits or pre-existing medical conditions \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eadministering, condoning or failure to intervene in drug use. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSigns which may raise concerns about physical abuse include: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003erefusal to discuss injuries\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eimprobable explanations for injuries\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ereluctance to go home\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003erepeat injuries over time\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003euntreated injuries\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efear of parents being asked for an explanation\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eavoiding certain activities due to injury\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eavoiding the removal of warm-up clothing during sessions.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003eSexual Abuse \u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSexual abuse is defined as any act that involves the child in any activity for the sexual gratification of another person, whether or not it is claimed that the child either consented or assented. Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eis aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts. They may include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, pornographic material or in watching sexual activities, using sexual language towards a child or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSome children may never be able to tell someone they have been sexually abused. Changes in a child’s behaviour may be a sign something has happened. In some instances, there may be no overt signs to suggest that a child has been sexually abused. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eExamples of sexual abuse in sport include: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eexposure to sexually explicit inappropriate language or jokes \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eshowing a child pornographic material or using a child to produce such material\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003einappropriate touching \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esexual intercourse and/or sexual activity with a child under 16. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSigns which may raise concerns about sexual abuse include: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003elack of trust in adults, overfamiliarity with adults, or fear of a particular adult\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esleep disturbance (nightmares, bed-wetting, fear of sleeping alone)\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003egirls taking over the mothering role\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ereluctance or refusal to participate in physical activity, or to change clothes for games \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003edrug/alcohol abuse\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003epsychosomatic indicators such as recurrent abdominal pain or headaches\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eeating disorders\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esocial isolation – being withdrawn or introverted, poor peer relationship\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003erunning away from home\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eschool problems (e.g. falling standards, truancy)\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003elow self-esteem\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esexual knowledge beyond the child’s age\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esexual promiscuity/over-sexualised behaviour\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eanxiety/depression/self-harm/suicide attempts.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eNeglect\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNeglect is defined as the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, which is likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. It may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing, to protect a child from physical harm or danger, or to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or failure to respond to, a child’s basic emotional needs. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNeglect may also result in the child being diagnosed as suffering from ‘non-organic failure to thrive’, where they have significantly failed to reach normal weight and growth of development milestones, and where physical and genetic reasons have been medically eliminated. In its extreme form, children can be at serious risk from the effects of malnutrition, lack of nurturing and stimulation. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis can lead to serious long-term effects such as greater susceptibility to serious childhood illnesses and reduction in potential stature. With young children in particular, the consequences may be life threatening within a relatively short period of time. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eExamples of physical neglect in sport include:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eexposing a child to extreme weather conditions (e.g. heat and cold)\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efailing to seek medical attention for injuries\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eexposing a child to risk of injury through the use of unsafe equipment\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eexposing a child to a hazardous environment without a proper risk assessment of the activity \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efailing to provide adequate nutrition and water. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSigns which may raise concerns about neglect include: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003econstant hunger\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003econstant tiredness\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003euntreated medical problems or injuries\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003epoor relationships with peers\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003epoor personal hygiene/clothing in poor condition\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ebeing frequently late or not attending sessions\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003elow self-esteem\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003estealing.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eThere are other circumstances and behaviours that can be considered as either forms of abuse, indicators that a child is at risk of abuse, or that a child’s wellbeing is being compromised. The following examples should not be considered as a definitive list.\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eBullying\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eBullying is a breach of children’s rights under several articles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere is no single legal definition of bullying in the UK, and whilst there are different descriptions of bullying across the Home Countries, it can broadly be termed as repeated behaviour which is intended to hurt someone either emotionally or physically, and is often aimed at certain people because of their race, religion, gender or sexual orientation, or any other aspect such as appearance or disability. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the Home Country governing bodies are committed to challenging all types of prejudice-based bullying and language, including bullying based on the protected characteristics listed in the Equality Act 2010.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis policy relates to both online and face-to-face bullying. We do not accept that bullying that happened online is something that happened ‘outside’ of our sport. Bullying in any form is behaviour that happens ‘to’ someone and it will have an impact upon them.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWe expect that all volunteers and staff will work together to prevent and reduce bullying and prejudice amongst children and young people by: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003edeveloping positive relationships amongst children, young people and adults which are mutually respectful, responsible and trusting \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ebuilding capacity, resilience and skills in children and young people, and parents and carers to prevent and deal with bullying \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ebullying of children and young people through a range of strategies and approaches \u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003esupporting children, young people and their parents and carers who are affected by bullying. \u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e*F or more information and links to specific advice on how to recognise and respond to bullying in your area, visit your Home Country governing body website. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eChildren and Young People on Performance Pathways\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eMoving through a performance pathway offers fantastic experiences and rewards for young athletes. However, there are factors that can make some talented young athletes more vulnerable to harmful behaviours, either from themselves, their coaches or parents, or members of their entourage.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThese factors include, but are not limited to:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003ea win-at-all-costs approach\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eintense coach–athlete relationships\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ea self-image that is linked closely with performance excellence\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003echild athletes operating in an adult-focused environment\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ebeing away from family and support networks\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efear of losing funding or a place on the programme if they speak out.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eChildren and Young People with a Disability\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhilst disabled children are likely to suffer the same type of abuse as other children, research suggests that children with a disability are three to four times more likely to be abused than non-disabled children (NSPCC 2014, Scottish Government 2014a). Research has also shown that children with communication impairments, behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and sensory impairments are particularly vulnerable. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe most common forms of abuse experienced by disabled children are neglect and emotional abuse, although they may experience multiple abuses. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCommunicating abuse is difficult for any child. They may be confused, fearful, traumatised and uncertain about what has happened and what might happen in the future. Not every child will disclose abuse or harm and there should be no greater expectation that disabled children will disclose more readily than any other children. Disclosing abuse can be more difficult for children who have a wide range of communication styles, and this can be more problematic if the perpetrator is also in a trusted role. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eNegative Discriminatory Behaviour\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eChildren and young people may experience harassment or negative discrimination because of their race or ethnic origin, socio-economic status, culture, age, disability, gender, sexuality or religious beliefs. Although not in itself a category of abuse, for the purposes of this policy, negative discriminatory behaviour is categorised as a wellbeing concern, but in serious cases it can be considered emotional abuse.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eChildren and Young People Experiencing or Affected by Mental Health Problems\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe emotional wellbeing of children and young people is just as important as their physical health. Most children grow up mentally healthy, but certain risk factors make some more likely to experience problems than others. Evidence suggests that more children and young people have problems with their mental health today than 30 years ago. Traumatic events in themselves will not usually lead to mental health problems, but they may trigger problems in those children and young people whose mental health is not robust.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTwo separate but not necessarily unconnected issues relate to children affected by mental health problems: \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003echildren and young people who are experiencing mental health problems themselves\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003echildren and young people whose lives are affected by the mental illness or mental\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003ehealth problems of a parent/carer.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eFinancial Abuse\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eChildren and young people can be subject to financial abuse and this may include:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003etheft of money or possessions\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efraud/scamming\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003cli\u003eprevented from accessing their own money, benefits or assets\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003eundue pressure, duress, threat or undue influence put on the person in connection with financial matters. In a sport setting this could include being asked to pay a coach’s expenses or being asked for a loan by a coach or volunteer\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003emisuse of personal allowance in a care home\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003emisuse of benefits by a parent/carer\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003efalse representation, or using another person’s bank account, cards or documents\u003c/li\u003e\u003cli\u003emisuse of a power of attorney or other legal authority.\u003c/li\u003e\u003c/ul\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eParental Problematic Alcohol and Drug Misuse\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eProblematic parental substance use can involve alcohol and/or drug use (including prescription as well as illegal drugs). The risks to, and impacts on, children of parents and carers who use alcohol and drugs are known and well-researched.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eDomestic Abuse\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eDomestic abuse describes any behaviour that involves exerting control over a partner or ex-partner’s life choices and that undermines their personal autonomy. Children and young people living with domestic abuse are at increased risk of significant harm, both as a result of witnessing the abuse and of being abused themselves. However, children can also be affected by abuse even when they are not witnessing it or being subjected to abuse themselves. Domestic abuse can profoundly disrupt a child’s environment, undermining their stability and damaging their physical, mental and emotional health.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eFemale Genital Mutilation (FGM)\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFemale genital mutilation is a culture-specific abusive practice affecting some communities. If it is suspected a child is at risk of FGM abuse, then this should always trigger a child safeguarding referral. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eHonour-based Violence and Forced Marriage\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHonour-based violence is a spectrum of criminal conduct which includes threats and abuse and which can escalate to honour killing. Such violence can occur when perpetrators believe that a relative/community member, who may be a child, has shamed the family and/or the community by breaking their honour code. The punishment may include assault, abduction, confinement, threats and murder.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eChild Criminal Exploitation (CCE)\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eChild criminal exploitation is a form of child abuse which involves criminal exploitation and requires a safeguarding response. It includes children who are involved in criminal activities, including the movement of drugs or money which results in personal gain for an individual, group or organised criminal gang. This can involve an element of exchange and can still be exploitation even if the activity appears consensual. It is typified by some form of power imbalance in favour of those perpetrating the exploitation.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eChild Trafficking\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eChild trafficking typically exposes children to continuous and severe risk of significant harm. It involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring and/or receipt of a child for purposes of exploitation. This definition holds whether or not there has been any coercion or deception, as children are not considered capable of informed consent to such activity. It applies to activity within a country as well as between countries. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eFurther Information\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFurther information on abuse and neglect is available from \u003ca href=\"https://www.nspcc.org.uk/what-is-child-abuse/spotting-signs-child-abuse/\"\u003eNSPCC\u003c/a\u003e\u003ca href=\"https://www.nspcc.org.uk/what-is-child-abuse/spotting-signs-child-abuse/\"\u003e \u003c/a\u003eand \u003ca href=\"https://www.children1st.org.uk/help-for-families/parentline-scotland/guidance-advice/cat/help-to-protect-children\"\u003eChildren 1st\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ch2\u003eACKNOWLEDGEMENTS\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eUK Athletics and the HCAFs are grateful to the NSPCC and Children 1st for their guidance and support in the development of this policy and associated procedures.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003epolicy was adopted by:\u003c/strong\u003e \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eDate:\u003c/strong\u003e \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eDate to be reviewed:\u003c/strong\u003e \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSigned on behalf of BAC\u003c/strong\u003e:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eName of Signatory:\u003c/strong\u003e \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eRole of Signatory:\u003c/strong\u003e \u003c/p\u003e","ContentConfig":{"Caption":null,"Icon":null,"IconColour":null,"CaptionColour":null,"UnderlineColour":null,"TextColour":null,"PaddingLeft":null,"PaddingTop":null,"PaddingRight":null,"PaddingBottom":null,"FontSize":null,"LineHeight":null,"BottomMargin":0,"PhoneVisible":true,"TabletVisible":true,"DesktopVisible":true},"ComponentCode":null,"ComponentData":null,"ComponentError":null,"BottomMargin":0,"ResponsiveClasses":"","Background":{"Colour":null,"ImageURL":null,"Filter":null,"IsParallax":false,"Image":""},"ImageConfig":{"ImageURL":null,"ObjectFit":"contain","ImageHeight":null,"FrameStyle":null,"BorderRadius":null,"AltText":null,"LinkURL":null,"PaddingLeft":null,"PaddingTop":null,"PaddingRight":null,"PaddingBottom":null,"BottomMargin":0,"PhoneVisible":true,"TabletVisible":true,"DesktopVisible":true}}]}],"ColumnSpacing":0,"BottomMargin":0,"TopPadding":0,"IsFullWidth":false,"IsBackgroundFullWidth":false,"Background":{"Colour":null,"ImageURL":null,"Filter":null,"IsParallax":false,"Image":""}}],"PageURL":"https://www.bracknellac.com/Cms/Spaces/AVL/adult?version=1","AllVersions":[{"ID":467,"Name":"v1 - adult - Julian Starkey - 28/04/2022 16:40"}],"Comments":[],"UpdatedComments":[],"Spaces":[],"IsWatching":false,"LastViewTime":null,"CanEdit":false,"CanPublish":false,"CanCopy":false,"CanComment":false,"CanReadComments":false,"CanModerateComments":false,"CanLike":false,"CanWatch":false}